The 81 names and entities on the Judiciary Committee's list touch all parts of Trump's life - the White House, his businesses, his campaign and the committee that oversaw the transition from campaign to presidency.
"The House Judiciary Committee's letter has been received by the White House", White House press secretary Sarah Sanders said in a statement.
Nadler said Sunday he believes the president has obstructed justice.
The broad requests from the House intelligence, Foreign Affairs and Oversight and Reform committees ask for the substance of Trump and Putin's conversations in person and by phone and for information on whether those conversations had any impact on US foreign policy.
Three US House of Representatives committees asked the White House and State Department on Monday for details on President Donald Trump's talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin, seeking to interview translators and other staff involved in their conversations. But Nadler said talk of trying to remove Trump from office is premature.
Now that Democrats hold a majority in the House, the new probe is a sign that Mr Trump's legal and political peril is nowhere near over, even as Mr Mueller's Russian Federation investigation winds down.
Among the people listed in the request for documents include some of Trump's closest associates and family members, including his two sons - Eric Trump and Donald Trump Jr., son-in-law Jared Kushner, his campaign manager Brad Parscale, former aides Hope Hicks and Don McGahn and longtime employees of the Trump Organization like chief financial officer Allen Weisselberg, and Rhona Graff, a longtime gatekeeper to Trump.
Trump implied on Monday that he would work with the panel: "I cooperate all the time with everybody", he told a reporter who asked whether he would help Nadler.
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Republicans in Congress said that Democrats are pursuing an impeachment agenda against Trump as part of a political strategy to reclaim the White House in the 2020 election. No collusion. It's all a hoax.
"Over the last several years, President Trump has evaded accountability for his near-daily attacks on our basic legal, ethical and constitutional rules and norms", Committee Chairman Jerrold Nadler said in announcing the launch of the investigation.
Comey was leading an investigation into Russian activities in the 2016 U.S. presidential election and possible collusion with Trump's campaign when the president fired him in May 2017.
The Judiciary Committee also is looking at whether Trump has used the White House for personal enrichment in violation of the Constitution's emoluments clause.
Some of the witnesses, particularly those in the White House, could also fight the committee's request for information, citing executive privilege.
In a tweet on Sunday, Trump blasted Mueller's Russian Federation investigation, calling it a partisan probe unfairly aimed at discrediting his win in the 2016 presidential election. "The (White House) Counsel's Office and relevant White House officials will review it and respond at the appropriate time".
Nadler said that Republicans - who controlled both chambers of Congress until January, when Democrats took the majority in the House following their wins in November's midterm elections - have "shielded" the President.
The committee is also asking the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Justice Department and others for documents related to possible pardons for Trump's former personal lawyer, Michael Cohen, former national security adviser Michael Flynn and former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort.