Italian Premier Giuseppe Conte, center, greets Deputy Premier and Interior Minister Matteo Salvini, as he arrive to address the Senate, in Rome, Tuesday, Aug. 20, 2019.
Salvini has been maneuvering to become Italy's next leader as support for his party grows on his anti-migrant stance.
Now that the premier has stepped down, President Sergio Mattarella will meet with party leaders to explore alternative coalitions.
The political crisis in Italy comes as the country is facing economic difficulties and a standoff with the European Union that demands that the Italian government enact a series of austerity measures in exchange for necessary financial support.
"Whoever holds government responsibilities should avoid, during political rallies, to put together, side by side, political slogans and religious symbols", Conte said, adding that Salvini's practice of brandishing the Rosary threatens to "cast a shadow upon the principle of secularism, a fundamental principle of the modern state". On Tuesday, Conte accused Salvini of showing "grave contempt" for parliament, and accused him of putting Italy into a possible "dizzying spiral of political and financial instability", as The Associated Press reported.
In theory, those two parties could form a new government with the support of the smaller parties that helped them block the no-confidence motion.
Former PD premier Matteo Renzi on Tuesday said that he "would not be part" of a PD-M5S alliance, as many in the anti-establishment party resent him as part of the old elite.
So far, the Italians have voted for Salvini knowing that he would not be governing alone and would be tamed by his allies.
The populist coalition's life "terminates here", Mr Conte said.
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Conte is due to speak in the Senate today following a week of fallout from Salvini's dramatic decision to back out of the alliance on August 8, plunging the eurozone's third-largest economy into political turmoil.
Italy's constitution says that Mattarella should first consult former presidents, meaning Senator Giorgio Napolitano, 94, who was in the job from 2006-2015.
Mr Martin-Genier said: "It's a dramatic situation, one created by Mr Salvini's irresponsible behaviour".
He is not expected to meet with the main parties, however, until Thursday.
A snap election, the forming of a new coalition without holding a new vote and, although unlikely, the continuation of the current government, would all be considered.
In that vote, the League doubled its support from around 17 percent in 2018 national elections to over 34 percent, while his coalition partner, the M5S, nearly halve its consensus.
Analysts believe that a caretaker government or a grand coalition would be "market friendly" scenarios, as they would soothe investor worries over a League-dominated budget that would likely spark a new row with Brussels.
"If the prime minister wants to pull the plug of the government, it is his choice", Salvini replied when he left the general assembly.
He said Salvini had sought "a pretext for the crisis" in the 5-Star Movement's longstanding opposition to a French rail link after the League scored highly in the recent European elections.