Political will to put a price on carbon.
"The promise of the Paris Agreement is one of a just and prosperous world".
Climate groups have treated with suspicion carbon markets, whether they take the form of "cap and trade"-where one polluter can trade its surplus units of allowable carbon emissions to another polluter-or carbon offsetting-in which some activity is done to "offset" the carbon created a polluter".
"A key question will be to what extent the growing social movements throughout the world will be factored into decisions of the COP25", said Laurence Tubiana, CEO of the European Climate Foundation and, as a former negotiator for France, a main architect of the Paris Agreement.
The Paris process faces a moment of truth next year when governments are due to unveil more ambitious proposals to cut the production of planet-warming gases in time to stop the climate careering past risky tipping points.
Police shoot man dead in ‘terrorist’ stabbings near London Bridge
The fleeing attacker, who was wearing a hoax explosive device, was tackled by members of the public before being shot by police. She said the manager ran to lock the doors and staff told people to move away from the front of the restaurant.
The ice covering Greenland is up to three kilometres thick in certain places, covering an area seven times the amount of the UK.
The conference comes as global efforts to mitigate climate change are on the brink of failure. "In the midst of a climate emergency, retreat and inaction are tantamount to sanctioning ecocide".
In March of this year, Chair of the Select Committee on the Climate Crisis Rep. Kathy Castor (D-Florida) introduced the Climate Action Now Act (H.R. 9) to ensure that America would honor its Paris climate agreement commitments. "Emissions are still rising. We now must deliver deeper cuts in emissions".
Spain's interim prime minister says "only a handful of fanatics deny the evidence" of climate change - without naming any individuals or countries.
António Guterres, the United Nations secretary general, also called for more action from the USA, the world's second biggest emitter after China, warning that some of the world's biggest economies were failing to cut carbon fast enough.
"I'm convinced that Europe will be in a position to negotiate with China, with India, with the United States, with Russian Federation in a way that will allow all to understand that this must be a collective effort and that they all will have to correct their policies in order to be able to drastically reduce the emissions", Guterres said. "The point of no return is no longer over the horizon". It is in sight and hurtling toward us. But the USA will continue to have a seat at the table of UN climate negotiations, as he has not withdrawn from the foundational treaty, called the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Teenage Swedish environmental activist Greta Thunberg, travelling to the conference across the Atlantic Ocean by catamaran, is now expected to land in Lisbon on Tuesday and reach Madrid by train or electric vehicle soon after.